Around 9% of the country’s total landmass is occupied by national park system. The main feature of environmental protection in France is the fact that tiny regional nature reserves complement large national parks and so they merge into the largest ecological zone in Western Europe. At the same time, these are the places offering a unique chance for visiting historical monuments and cultural heritage sites, providing nice conditions for climbing and hiking. Around 10% of all travelers in France prefer to spend their vacation in the reserves, while the total number of French people preferring this type of leisure activities reach up 23%.
Mercantour National Park
Mercantour national park (Parc National du Mercantour) occupies the eponymous mountain range and covers 425 square miles next to the Italian border. Founded in 1979 in the region around mount Gelas (Cime du Gelas, 10300 feet) and Valley of Wonders (Vallee des Merveilles) it has become one of the largest reserves in Europe, known for its natural and historical sites.
The park contains a unique range of flora and fauna, while near the town of Saint-Martin-Vésubie you can find the only country wolves park Alpha. In 1987 Mercantour national park was combined with the Alpi Marittime nature park (Parco Naturale dell’Argentera) that expanded the habitat of many unique plants and animals. This also makes convenient visiting three dozen picturesque mountain villages with unique architecture, which has absorbed both French and Italian traditions. The hallmark of the park is the Valley of Wonders which revealed more than 37 thousand petroglyphs dating back to the II millennium BC. If you fond of ancient paintings visit a museum in the town of Tende. The entrance fee is around $22 USD.
There are 150 miles of signposted hiking trails and numerous routes for mountain climbers. When you visit Mercantour by car you can depart from any city of the Côte d’Azur through Monaco and Nice.
Port-Cros National Park
Port-Cros National Park (Parc national de Port-Cros) is located in the Hyeres Islands (Iles d’Hyeres) to the southeast of Toulon. Along with Porquerolles botanical reserve, Port-Cros covers about six square miles of landmass and 50 square miles of water area. Port-Cros is the first marine reserve in Europe (founded in 1963), dedicated to the protection of unique ecosystems of the dry Mediterranean islands and their adjacent waters. Thanks to an extensive network of hiking trails passing by the ruined forts and tiny buildings around Port-Cros, it allows to get acquainted with the wonderful nature of the islands in a really short time.
Porquerolles island is popular for its dramatic views that can best be seen from the top of the old lighthouse (open to public from June to September, from 11.00 a.m. to 12.00 p.m. and from 2.30 p.m. to 4.30 p.m.) and the surrounding cliffs. Attend a hike along the coastal cliffs through the heaths and thickets of dry maquis (evergreen shrub) and visit Le Hameau Mediterranean Botanical Garden. Porquerolles island has nice clean sea around, so take an advantage of swimming and relaxing on the Notre Dame beach, surrounded by pine trees, which is the longest on the island, located two miles north-east of the village of Porquerolles. Or enjoy an Argento beach, located one mile to the west from the Port. As well as go snorkeling amongst the coastal cliffs.
In order to reach Porquerolles and Port-Cros you can use ferries from Toulon and Le Lavandou or travel boats from any port of the Côte d’Azur.
Vanoise National Park
Vanoise national park (Parc national de la Vanoise) was founded on July 6, 1963. It covers around 780 sq miles of mountain range, located in the south-eastern part of the Savoie department, between the Arc and Isere rivers, Italian border and the Mont Cenis pass. The central part of the park, which is occupied by five tiny local reserves, is being protected very strictly. Nearly 80% of its territory is not available for visiting, as these are most protected (and mountainous too) parts of the park. It was that very part of the park that appeared to be a basis for reserve formation, as it also known as home to the largest population of Alpine Ibex in France. In order to restore and increase Ibex population, Vanoise national park was combined with the Gran Paradiso national park (there is still a border between these two countries). As a result, an Ibex population has stabilized (at the moment, more than 2,100 species), which also helped to maintain the preservation of many other rare mountain plants and animals that turned the Vanoise and Gran Paradiso to the most authentic parts of Europe.
The peripheral area of the park is open to the public and brings together 28 most picturesque mountain villages. This part of the park can be regarded not only as a place where meticulous environmental protection is being held, but also as a place offering nice conditions for skiing, rafting, kayaking and climbing. In addition to animal and bird observing, ski trails such as Les Trois Vallees, La Plagne or Val D’Isere and Tignes can be used if you fond of skiing. There are several hiking trails of different length and difficulty level that allow you to visit numerous waterfalls and caves, Lac Blanc Polset marble rocks, Pierre aux Pieds megaliths, Vanoise petroglyphs as well as see many other most picturesque places of the region.
If you travel by car you can use the highways A43 and D902 that go next to the Maurienne valley, or use highways N90 and D915 through Moutiers. If you prefer rail travel you can reach the town of Modane by train and then go up into the mountains by bus. The nearest airports to Vanoise are Chambery, Grenoble Isere, Lyon-Satolas and Geneve.
Ecrins National Park
Ecrins National Park (Parc national des Ecrins) is situated next to the border of Isere and Hautes-Alpes departments, within the territory of French Alps and Massif des Ecrins. The mountain reserve covers around 570 sq miles and was founded in 1973 to preserve a large area of pine and oak forests, alpine meadows and wastelands. The main reason to visit Ecrins is its amazing nature. Numerous glaciers and lakes, as well as narrow rocky valleys, crossing the mountain range are worth seeing. Meanwhile, Ecrins is considered the second highest point in France after Mont Blanc. Ecrins peak (Barre des Ecrins, 4102 m), the Mont Pelvoux (Mont Pelvoux, 3946 m) and La Meiji (La Meije, 3983 m) are located in the northern part of the mountain range.
Within the park territory located six smaller separate reserves that have single management and monitoring system. The nature of the park is worth enjoying for its pronounced altitudinal zonation. Thus, at the foot of the peaks you will find an amazing variety of mixed forests and alpine meadows, beautiful mountain lakes and rivers, while the air is filled with myriads of insects. But as soon as we start climbing up the mountains the picture will change rapidly, only mosses and lichens and rocks can be found just one mile up. Herewith, the alpine fauna is hardly can be called scarce, more than fifty species of wild animals and 300 species of plants can be observed here.
Romanche, Guisane and Drac valleys that surround the conservation area provide excellent opportunities for exploring the original local culture, as well as for recreation. About one hundred designated climbing routes laid out in the highlands, while for hiking more than 600 miles of relatively easy hiking trails are available.
Information offices of the park are located in the towns of Le Bourg-d’Oisans and Vallouise, through which start the most convenient routes to the mountains.
Queyras National Park
Queyras Regional Park (Parc naturel regional du Queyras, founded in 1977) isn’t the one of the largest reserves in the country, but for its nature and climate is considered one of the best mountain nature reserves in Europe. Located in spurs of Alpes Cottiae between Briancon and the Italian border, it is markedly different from the neighboring parks due to the authentic mix of alpine nature and Mediterranean features. Dense forests and green alpine meadows are being replaced by vast thickets of evergreen shrubs and mountain wastelands that make this region one of the richest for landscape diversity. Herewith, access to all parts of the park is completely free, while the abundance of tiny mountain villages provides nice conditions for accommodation and exploring the local culture.
The reserve covers about 5700 acres at altitudes between 5900 and 10000 feet, stretching along the Guil river to the Viso mountain located in Italian territory. The local fauna is extremely diverse, and the numerous villages of the valley are popular during wintertime, serving as ski resorts. During summertime they provide excellent opportunities for hiking and horseback excursions in the mountains.
The easiest way to get to the reserve is to use A51 highway from Marseille (148 miles) or go through Briancon using A43 highway from Grenoble. Please note, some passes might be impassable from October to May due to thick snow cover. This is especially true for Col Izoard – Col Agnel road stretch.
Pyrenees National Park
Pyrenees national park (Parc national des Pyrenees, founded in 1967) stretches 65 miles along the Spanish border. It covers nearly 285 sq miles and along with adjacent Pyrénées Occidentales national park and Ordesa and Monte Perdido Spanish national park form a huge protected area, occupying nearly a half of the French Pyrenees. Moreover, this region is attractive not only for its unique natural environment and wildlife, but also for the territory availability and an abundance of historical sites.
Dense beech and poplar forests can be enjoyed at the foot of the Pyrenees, a little higher up the mountains starts the area of mixed forests inhabited by a large number of animals and at the very top only dry wastelands and deserted areas are located. About 250 miles of hiking and equestrian trails are laid out in the reserve, whilst mountaineers will find attractive distant mountain areas. The French Pyrenees has the highest point in the region – mount Vignemale (10820 feet), the famous Cirque de Gavarnie, about 200 lakes, as well as one of the highest waterfalls in Europe – the Gavarnie falls. The particularly interesting place to visit here is the town of Lourdes that once was an important center of religious pilgrimage in Western Europe, not to mention numerous castles and mountain villages.
Before you visit the national park, search for information centers that can be visited in Tarbes, Etsaut, Cauterets, Luz-Saint-Sauveur, Gavarnie, Laruns and Arrens-Marsous. You can reach the park by using Tarbes-Lourdes-Pyrenees Airport or the Pau-Pyrenees Airport. If you travel by train you can consider SNCF line Bayonne – Toulouse going through Tarbes. Renting a car and driving on the highway, would be a convenient way for transit trips to Spain and seeing remote mountainous areas.
Cevennes National Park
Parc national des Cevennes is located in the mountainous areas of the country’s south. The Cevennes mountain range is one of the oldest in Europe. Therefore, this region is characterized by the most unusual environment, famous for a variety of relict life forms. At the same time, it is one of the oldest areas of human habitation, so for protection purposes the Cevennes national park was established in 1970 and covered the entire southern part of the Lozere department and the north-western part of the Gard department. According to the French environmental regulations the park is divided into two parts which are the strictly protected central part and the outer part where the bulk of historical settlements are located (outer part is open for travelers).
Climbing up the mountains, Mont Lozere alpine meadows are being replaced with peatlands and mountain wastelands, steppes and meadows stretch along the western slopes, meanwhile covered rocky valleys of the southern slopes are rich in subtropical vegetation, lovely beech, chestnut and oak forests (more than 143.000 acres that form the largest forest area in the south of the country). 33 out of 400 endangered species in France can be observed in the park, not to mention more than a hundred species of rare plants, which turn out to be quite surprising given that nearly all slopes of the outside are used for livestock grazing.
Guesthouses, rural lodgings or B&B, fitted up with the help of the park offer nice conditions of stay with the inhabitants. Many rural inns, camping sites and hotels are available in the peripheral zone. Its rugged mountains cloaked in chestnut trees, and dotted with medieval hamlets that still offer some of the country’s best goat cheeses. More than 240 miles of hiking and cycling trails and nearly 80 miles of water trails are laid out across the green valleys and gorges. That is the highest concentration of hiking trails in the country. For beginning mountaineers, Mont Aigoual (5134 feet) and Pic de Finiels (5574 feet) are most suitable options. The main information center is located in the Florac castle, while the local offices can be visited in the towns of Le Pont de Montvert, Genolhac, Valleraugue and Le Vigan. You can easily get to the Cevennes national park thanks to two major highways (Paris – Nimes and Beziers – Clermont-Ferrand) stretching the park from the East and West respectively. The inner parts of the park are only available for off-road, horseback riding and hiking.
In addition to national parks, there are around 50 regional parks in France (Parc naturel regional, PNR), whose legal status is being developed on the basis of agreements between local authorities and the French government. Regional parks were created in accordance with the decree of 1967, and their legal status is a subject to mandatory inspection every decade, which allows to expand and develop their infrastructure. As a result, many of them have developed into major preservation areas capable to compete with the national parks.
The Camargue regional reserve is the most famous in the country. It occupies the vast western part of the Rhone River delta. This region is unique for its salt and reed marshes, marine lagoons, hundreds of channels and sand islands that consider to be the last place where visitors can enjoy relic prairies that are completely vanished in other parts of the mainland. Pink flamingos, egrets and numerous waterfowl are still nesting in a total area of more than 930 sq miles. More than a hundred mammal species can be observed in a unique juniper forest and brackish water of the estuaries. But the top reason to visit Camargue is to see white horses and Camargue cattle with your own eyes as they won’t be found anywhere else in Europe.
Located in a very heart of France, Brenne Natural Park is considered the most important lake reserve in the country. Despite the fact that French people consider the park as lacustrine wetlands, the area actually contains almost no natural lakes, as most all of the nearly 1,400 ancient water bodies have long been adapted to economic needs. Linked by canals and channels they are, rather, ponds and reservoirs than lakes. However, vast areas of wetlands in the area between Creuse and Indre, as well as dense vegetation and numerous ponds and streams provide nice conditions for bird nesting and excellent habitat for fish and mammals.
The hilly Petit-Brenn region in the southern part, isn’t the official part of the park and is used for grazing. But the local wooded areas with lots of hedgerows have also become a refuge for thousands of living beings, coexisting with humans almost seamlessly. The main reason to visit Brenne is bird seasonal migrations. More than 140 species of birds can be observed here. Brenne is a habitat for the largest population of European aquatic tortoise in France. Besides, the licensed hunting is permitted here, so the park is a most popular place for active sports with a really convenient location.
Numerous signposted hiking trails are laid out in the park. About one hundred trails can be used for short hiking, while only two trails are dedicated for a multi-day hike. Сyclists can use not only specialized trails for downhill, but local roads as well due to low traffic in the region. There are several equestrian centers conducting tours, water sport and leisure center in Mezieres-en-Brenne. Architecture is another reason to visit Brenne natural park. Distinctive local architecture, famous for red sandstone houses and several castles, monasteries and museums, attract travelers. To get to the park by car from virtually anywhere in France is easy when going through Poitiers and Chateauroux, from which start several roads framing the whole territory of Brenne.
Haut-Languedoc regional park is located in the southern part of the country, between Toulouse and Montpellier. The park was established on October 22, 1973, and due to its vastness, it is divided into seven parts, each with its unique environmental conditions. Haut-Languedoc is well-known for a great variety of bird species – around 247 species live here. All recent years park workers have been restoring and maintaining mouflon livestock that was once totally exterminated in these mountainous areas, but now brought here from Corsica. A vast range of climate conditions and landscapes make this park a connecting link between the hot southern regions and cool northern lands. All types of animal and plant species that are typical for Western Europe, can be observed in this park.
Outdoor enthusiasts will find picturesque valleys and fairly low mountain ranges, forested mountains and lifeless stone placers of ancient volcanic fields, as well as numerous rivers and lakes. Main office of the park is located in the town of Saint-Pons-de-Thomieres, but several surrounding towns of Tar and Herault departments have additional offices. In order to reach the Haut-Languedoc park by car drive from Toulouse through Revel (when going from the West), from Montpellier through Clermont-l’Herault (when going from the South).
To the East of Avignon lies the tiny Luberon mountain range. The half of its territory is under protection of the Regional Natural Park of the same name. This is an unusual natural reserve, featuring contrasting climatic conditions. The northern slopes of the ridge have a humid climate and it is relatively cold here during wintertime, while the southern side has a warm Mediterranean climate and is covered by dense forests and pastures. Several picturesque towns and medieval castles are located in the neighborhood, making this region a very scenic and easily accessible. The best starting point for exploring the mountains is the town of Apt with its large confectionery factory and a lovely market. However, bulk of travelers is just drive through the city, heading for the archaeological museum.
The Verdon regional park lies on the south-east of France in the Alpes de Haute Provence department. The park has the second largest canyon in the world that was formed by the Verdon River. Having the size of half a mile deep and 15 miles in length, the canyon is very popular with travelers, who can drive around its rim, rent kayaks or hike, and even do rock climbing on the limestone walls. The most impressive part is located between the towns of Castellane and Moustiers-Sainte-Marie, where the river paved a picturesque gorge and falls into the reservoir of St. Croix (Sainte-Croix-du-Verdon). The slopes of the gorge are of different inclination due to this fact, lots of spots are covered with beautiful forest. The rocky areas are popular with climbers, more than 1,500 trails are laid out with the elevation difference from 65 to 1300 feet. Around a hundred hiking trails are available to get quite astonishing views.
Due to proximity to the Côte d’Azur and the Luberon mountains, Verdon park is very popular with travelers. You can reach the park by using the road D952 from Castellana to Moustiers-Sainte-Marie when going from the north, or by using the road D71, through Aiguines.
The Corse Regional Park covers about 40% of total area on the island of Corsica in the Mediterranean Sea. This nature reserve includes the unique mountain areas, volcanic landscapes, dozens of lakes and majestic mountain peaks, usually snow-covered. The park is home to more than a hundred mammal and bird species and about 1,140 species of mountain plants. The abundance of pristine mountain areas, lakes and picturesque villages attracts outdoor enthusiasts and cultural tourism lovers. Any point within the island can be easily reached by car.
Among all other sights Calanques reserve is the first to be visited. Located three miles south-west of Porto a calanque is a geologic formation in the form of a deep valley with steep banks, partially filled sea, in other words, fjord. Such formations can be found near Marseille and Bouches-du-Rhone department, but the Corsican calanques is something special with its beauty. Orange and pink cliffs that stretch along the coast, towering over the water to a height up to 1000 feet, forming a wonderful landscape, included on the UNESCO’s World Heritage List. These unusual formations had a mystical significance for centuries, and were identified with various demons and animals. It is not surprising that they have quite peculiar names, such as “dog’s head”, “Bear”, “turtle” and even “One-eyed bishop.” The easiest way to get to the park is a boat trip from Porto (summer tours depart daily and cost about $24 USD) or by using a mountain road leading from Porto to Cargese.